N108: Transition to the Registered Professional Nurse Role Study Guide 1.3 The Influence of World Events and Trends on the Development of Nursing Impact of Religion and Religious Orders During the 17 th century, social reform began in Europe. Several nursing groups were organized to gave time, money, and service to the sick and the poor, visiting them in their homes and ministering to their needs. • The Reformation: The reformation brought a change in the role of women. Duties were those of bearing children and caring for the home. This image may have greatly influenced the development of nursing as a profession, as many capable and desirable persons were unwilling to enter nursing while it had this image. This era was known as the Dark Ages of nursing. • Sisters of Charity: Sisters of Charity was founded in Paris in 1633 and received help from St. Vincent de Paul. The Sisters of Charity recruited and educated intelligent young women to care for abandoned children, as well as provide hospital care. In 1809, the Sisters of the Charity established a nursing order in the United States under Elizabeth Bayley Seton. • Sisters of the Holy Cross: This Sisters of the Holy Cross was founded in France and the United States. It provided care to the sick in hospitals and orphanages. • Catholic Religious Orders in Mexico and South America: These were founded following the Reformation, as several Roman Catholic religious groups traveled to the Americas. In 1524 the first hospital on the American continent, the Hospital of Immaculate Conception, was built in Mexico City and mission colleges were founded. The first medical school in America was founded in 1578 at the University of Mexico. • Ursuline Sisters in Canada: This organized the first training of nurses on the North American continent, teaching the native women to care for their families during a smallpox epidemic. • The Christian Deaconess Movement: The Christian Deaconess Movement was revived in Germany in 1836. The Deaconesses cared for the sick, made visitations, worked in the parish, and taught. In 1849 Pastor Fliedner traveled to the United States to help establish the first Motherhouse of Kaiserwerth in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Deaconesses managed the Pittsburgh infirmary, which later became the Passavant Hospital, the first Protestant hospital in the United States. • Nursing Sisters in England and Ireland: The Nursing Sisters in England and Ireland established the Institute of Nursing Sisters, which was a secular group established in England by Elizabeth Fry. It was also established by the Sisters of Mercy, a Roman Catholic group formed by Catherine McAuley, and the Irish Sisters of Charity, a Roman Catholic group formed by Mary Aikenhead. Military Influences on the Development of Nursing The Crimean War The Crimean War began in 1853 when England and France joined forces to defend Turkey against Russia. The founder of modern nursing, Florence Nightingale, is known for her work during this war. Nightingale organized the care of the sick and wounded at Scutari, the British base hospital in Constantinople. After Nightingale returned from the Crimean War, she wrote about the need for training and education for nurses. In 1860, she founded a school of nursing at St. Thomas Hospital in London.