N108: Transition to the Registered Professional Nurse Role Study Guide and people) and two abstract concepts (environment and health). Concepts (like ideas) are abstract impressions organized into symbols of reality. They describe objects, properties, events, and relationships among them. In this case, environment is used as an abstract concept like a relationship between persons, rather than a real physical place. A group of concepts make up a conceptual framework of a model. Key Definitions • Theory : A statement regarding either physical things or abstract concepts that attempts to explain their relationship. It can be tested as true or false. • Proposal : Something that is used to research an untested theory. • Hypothesis : A prediction that can also be tested. • Concept: An idea or perception. The concept can be a part of a theory or a precursor to it. • Conceptual framework: A group of related perceptions, statements, or ideas. • Paradigm: A model or pattern of shared assumptions about reality. • Practice discipline: The study of the actual function of a role. The Four Concepts (Paradigms) of Nursing Theory • The client (consumer, patient, family, or community) is the receiver of nursing care. • Nursing (nurse or nursing actions) includes all interactions between the nurse, patient, and environment, as well as all the characteristics and actions of a nurse. • Health is the degree of well-being or illness a person experiences. • Environment is the surroundings, either alive (other people) or inanimate, that can affect the client. Each theorist may define the terms somewhat differently. Nursing theorists illustrate their theories by using models. A model represents reality in the abstract and may reflect the theorist’s view of that reality. Nursing theory is developed to describe nursing. Nursing theory differentiates itself from other disciplines because it serves the purpose of describing, explaining, predicting, and controlling desired outcomes of nursing practice. Nursing theorists illustrate theories by using models which reflects the theorist’s view of reality. Types of Theories • Grand nursing theory : This theory explains nursing in terms of the larger society. It uses the terms person, nursing, health, and environment in ways that are only used in discussions of grand nursing theory. Of the four concepts listed, person is the most important, regardless of definition or theory. • Mid-level nursing theory : This theory researches the technology of nursing as a method of seeking information.