N108: Transition to the Registered Professional Nurse Role Study Guide Cadet Nurse Corps The Bolton Act of 1943 resulted in the creation of the Cadet Nurse Corps. The nursing shortage during WWII highlighted the need for more nurses. This was the first federal program to subsidize nursing education. The female recruits of the Cadet Nurse Corps received federal tuition money, uniforms, and a monthly stipend while they pursued their nursing education. After completing the program, nurses were required to serve a period of time in the military. This program proved that nurses could be trained successfully in a short period of time. During modern wars, such as those in Korea, Vietnam, and the Middle East, nurses served in Mobile Army Surgical Hospitals (MASH). There has also been an increase in the need for flight nurses to help the injured while they are being evacuated to a safe zone. 1.4 Significant Nursing Leaders and Their Contributions Florence Nightingale Nightingale was called “the lady with the lamp” because she carried a lamp on night rounds while visiting sick soldiers. She is given credit for being the founder of modern nursing. Nightingale was born in 1820 in Florence, Italy to wealthy English parents. Although she was raised to be a lady, she became a social reformer particularly in the care of hospital patients. She trained at Kaiserwerth, a German nursing school. In 1854, during the Crimean War, she and a group of her nurses reformed conditions at the military hospital that served British soldiers in Scutari. Nightingale gathered and published data on patient morbidity and mortality in British hospitals and established a training school for nurses. Nightingale emphasized following the doctor’s orders. She also wrote Notes on Nursing: What it is and What it is not for family members who nursed sick relatives. The major theme of Nightingale’s work focused on sanitation and the environment, with the goal of nursing to put the patient in the best condition for nature to act upon him, primarily by altering the environment. Nightingale wrote that the education of nurses should include both theory and practice which included the following: • Nurses would be trained in teaching hospitals associated with medical schools and organized for that purpose. • Nurses would be selected carefully and would reside in nurses’ houses designed to encourage discipline and form character. • The school matron would have final authority over the curriculum, living arrangements, and all other aspects of the school. • Teachers would be paid for their instruction. • Records would be kept on the students, who would be required to attend lectures, take quizzes, write papers, and keep dairies. Inmany ways, Florence Nightingale advanced nursing as a profession. She believed that nurses should spend their time caring for patients, not cleaning. She also believed that nurses must continue learning throughout their lifetime and not become stagnant, that nurses should be intelligent and use that intelligence to improve conditions for the patient, and that nursing leaders should have social standing.