N108: Transition to the Registered Professional Nurse Role Study Guide Madeleine Leininger Leininger’s theory is known as the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality. She believed that caring is the essence of nursing. Leininger believed that patterns of caring develop and can be systematically observed; therefore, a “science of caring” can develop from these patterns of caring. Leininger believed that across cultures there are fewer commonalities of care than differences, based on the fact that people are different and their situations are different. Nursing care should be based on the understanding and respect for the differing cultures of their patients. Leininger believed the nurse’s priority was the culture of the patient, strategizing how to take that culture into account, and evaluating the degree to which culture was respected. Dorothea Orem Orem’s theory is known as the Self-Care Deficit. She believed that a person does self-care on a daily basis. If the patient’s resources are depleted, meaning he cannot perform self-care, the nursing system can meet that deficit. Nursing care can be wholly or partially compensatory or supportive and educative. Nurses select and use interventions to help patients with self-care, which contributes to the maintenance and promotion of the patient’s structure, development, and function. Orem believed the nurse’s priority was the patient’s self-care, strategizing to increase self-care, and evaluating the degree to which the patient is capable of self-care. Martha Rogers Rogers’ model is called the Science of Unitary Human Beings. She theorizes that humans are greater than the sum of their parts and that human beings move through time and space as an integral part of the expanding universe. She describes a constant exchange of energy between humans and their environment. Her theory also describes the principles of homeodynamics, which includes helicy, resonancy, complementarity, and an indivisible energy field. Roger’s priorities were energy and wholeness. She defines nursing as the use of intellect and knowledge to interact with the patients to promote healthy patterns of living in harmony with their environment. Sister Callista Roy Roy’s theory is known as the Adaptation Model. She believed that a person is in constant contact with his environment. If the environment changes, the person must adapt to those changes. The role of the nurse in this model is to move stimuli into a satisfactory zone. Roy described four modes of adaptation: • Physiological needs • Self-concept • Role function • Interdependence relations Roy’s priority was the need to adapt, strategizing the assistance of adaptation in any of the four zones, and evaluating the patient’s degree of stimuli into a satisfactory zone.