N108: Transition to the Registered Professional Nurse Role Study Guide research needed. Nurse’s Role in Data Collection For the results of nursing research to be successful, it must be carried out by an individual who has the educational background to thoroughly understand and direct the process. This may be a nurse with a master’s degree, but for large studies, for funded research, and in large institutions, the principle researcher is usually a nurse with a doctorate. The research itself is most often conducted by a team that includes individuals who provide the treatment (if this is a part of the research design), those who collect data, and specialists in statistics who assist with data analysis. The staff nurse may fulfill a treatment role or a data collection role in the research process. A major role for staff nurses is to identify questions or problems. Within an institution, there may be a specific method for a staff nurse to communicate questions to an individual or a committee that might plan research. Another role of the staff nurse is to guard the welfare of the patients for whom he or she cares for. This involves asking questions to be sure the research proposed has gone through the appropriate institutional processes before agreeing to participate as a data gatherer or the nurse providing the research intervention. The nurse’s role is to remain neutral and objective and to limit researcher influence over the study subject. Types of Research Qualitative research is used to gain a greater understanding of the experience of the patient and family. Qualitative research involves studying phenomena as they naturally occur, which allows the researcher to achieve a more comprehensive, contextual understanding of the topic and may help the nurse in identifying areas to explore with the patient and family. This type of research may involve interviews, lengthy observations, and detailed case histories. Types of qualitative research include phenomenology, ethnography, case studies, and life histories. Analysis of qualitative research attempts to find themes within the data. No statistical tests are used and no effort is made to try and determine probability in regard to the information. • Phenomenology: This is when extensive and unstructured interviews are conducted with a limited number of participants with the goal being to identify themes and patterns within their discussions. Phenomenology usually results in extensive descriptions of the “lived experience” of persons with a certain health concern. Understanding what the patient’s experience helps the nurse focus communication and support strategies to address important areas of life. • Ethnography: This is the investigation of a culture through an in-depth study of the members of the culture, involving the systematic collection, description, and analysis of data for development of theories of cultural behavior. • Case studies and life histories: These provide detailed information about a single individual and emphasize specifics and particular circumstances of the individual more clearly, which helps the nurse to understand how a health problem fits into an entire life.