N108: Transition to the Registered Professional Nurse Role Study Guide Madeline Leininger Leininger created the theory of nursing known as the “Transcultural Care Model.” She believed the essence of nursing is caring. Leininger believed that the patterns of caring that develop can be seen and systematically observed. From these patterns, a “science of caring” is developed. In this theory, culture is defined as the learned, shared, and transmitted values, beliefs, norms, and life practices of a particular group. Mildred Montag Montag was a developer and leader of the Associate Degree in Nursing movement in nursing education. Her doctoral dissertation was published in 1951, in which she advocated and authored the education of a nursing technician. The nursing technician would function somewhere between the professional nurse and practical nurse. Faye Abdellah Abdellah developed 21 problems that have been used in teaching patient-centered nursing care. She also identified the five elements nurses must have that are the basis for nursing diagnosis and treatment: • Observation and communication • Interpretation of what is observed • Technical and other skills for practice and management • Analysis • Organization Loretta Ford Ford’s expertise is in the education of nurse practitioners. She has written extensively on the history of nurse practitioners, her predictions on the future of the field, and myths and misconceptions. Luther Christman Christman was a Dean Emeritus of Rush University in Chicago. He is recognized as a leader in nursing education, particularly nursing management. He supported the use of the unified educational process setting. Margaret Sanger Sanger was the founder of Planned Parenthood. As a public health nurse, Sanger worked on maternity cases involving underpaid industrial workers of New York where unwanted pregnancies flourished. After witnessing a woman’s death from a self-abortion, Sanger educated herself on birth control methods and started a clinic with her sister. Although she was nearly arrested, Sanger continued to fight for a woman’s right to information on birth control.