N108: Transition to the Registered Professional Nurse Role Study Guide The 1965 position paper by the ANA proposed BSN education to be the entry level of professional nurses, and the ADN level would be technical nurses. The paper proposed the elimination of diploma and practical nursing programs. Nine essential components have been identified by the AACN as critical to professional nursing education. They include the following: • Liberal arts education • Organizational and systems leadership • Scholarships for evidence-based practice • Information management and application • Healthcare policy, finance, and regulatory environments • Inter-professional communication and collaboration • Clinical prevention and population health • Profession and professional values • Baccalaureate generalist nursing practice The RN to BSN completion programs allow nurses who have an ADN or diploma education to earn a BSN. Assessment programs test students on their level of knowledge and skill then award credit accordingly. Distance learning programs offer courses over the Internet. The BSN, ADN, and diploma program graduates take the same state exam for licensure. Master’s Programs The first generic master’s degree in nursing was opened at Yale University in 1974, and other schools soon followed. Students are admitted with a baccalaureate degree in another disciple and are granted a master’s degree in nursing after completing an established two-year program of study that prepares them for RN licensure. The early master’s degree programs prepared graduates as educators and administrators. Today, nurses with master’s degrees perform advance practice nursing, teach, and work in administration. A nurse who has a master’s degree in administration can advance in the workplace due to improved qualifications for a management position. In 1969, the ANA issued a statement that said nurse clinicians needed master’s degree preparation. Nurse practitioners are usually educated and experienced in a primary care area. They typically work in an outpatient setting. Clinical nurse specialists are educated and experienced in a specialized area with the knowledge needed to care for the most complex patients. Both of these specialties are now required to have an MSN for certification. Nurses who want to do research, nurse practitioner work, or teach nursing must have education beyond a BSN.