N108: Transition to the Registered Professional Nurse Role Study Guide Change Theories Lewin: The force field model • Driving forces push the system toward change • Restraining forces pull the system away from change • Steps: 1. Unfreezing: Recognition of the need for a change. o Create disconfirmation o Create guilt and anxiety o Provide psychological safety in the new system 2. Moving: Members agree that the status quo is not acceptable, and the change process is planned in detail and carried out. o Introduce the new behavior o Encourage the new behavior o Continue a supportive climate o Provide for ventilation (as in talking) o Provide for clarification o Present the changer as worthy of trust o Overcome resistance o Energize 3. Freezing: The process is fully developed and integrated into the stabilized system. o Continue energizing o Continue to guide new behavior o Delegate new responsibility to others Rogers: Diffusion of innovation • Invention of change • Diffusion of information about change • Consequences of change, either adoption or rejection Waltzlawick, McWhinney: Reframing mode • First-order change: A less intense, less profound change that is less likely to fail because it does not break old behavior patterns or relationships. • Second-order change: Reframing is required. The phrase “thinking outside the box” describes this process. • Steps of second-order change: 1. Define the problem using concrete terms. 2. List solutions that have already been tried. 3. Clearly define a realistic change.