Nursing 211

N211: Health Differences Across the Lifespan I

©2012 of 148 Peripheral Adrenergic Agents Inhibit release of vasoconstriction catecholamines such as norepinephrine. Combination agents include combined diuretics, beta blockers with diuretics, ACE inhibitors with diuretics, angiotensin II receptor antagonists and diuretics, calcium antagonists and ACE inhibitors, and other miscellaneous combinations of drugs. Diuretics Diuretics are used in the management of edematous and non-edematous conditions. They are used most frequently in edema, heart failure, & hypertension and in preventing renal failure. Diuretic drugs act on the kidneys to decrease reabsorption of sodium, chloride, water, and other substances. In edematous states, diuretics mobilize tissue fluids by decreasing plasma volume. Fluid losses can be evaluated by daily weighing, I&O, and assessing breath sounds and peripheral edema. Thiazide diuretics have few side effects but are contraindicated in clients with allergies to sulfonamides. They can also induce hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia, and hypercalcemia in adults. Loop diuretics can cause large fluid volume deficits and hypokalemia. Potassium-sparing diuretics may cause hyperkalemia. Osmotic diuretics can also cause large fluid losses and electrolyte imbalance. Hypokalemia can occur with many diuretics that may cause cardiac dysrhythmias. Hyperkalemia caused by potassium sparing diuretics or overuse of potassium supplements can cause cardiac depression. Oral contraceptives and vasopressors are prescription drugs that can decrease the effects of diuretics. NSAIDs are over the counter drugs may decrease the effects of a diuretic. Medications should be taken regularly, as prescribed. Over-the-counter medications should be reviewed by the physician. Client should reduce sodium intake to help the diuretics work more effectively. Diuretics may cause potassium imbalances; thus, periodic measurement of electrolytes is necessary. If taking a potassium supplement or potassium-sparing diuretic, salt substitutes must be avoided. Diuretics may cause sensitivity to sunlight, and therefore protection is necessary. Avoid alcoholic beverages. Change positions slowly to prevent fainting and dizziness. Take diuretics in the morning to avoid waking during the night to urinate. Hypokalemia may occur if the supplement is discontinued. Excess potassium loss may cause cardiac dysrhythmias. Achieve Page 9

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