N211: Health Differences Across the Lifespan I minutes. Instruct the patient about risk factors for myocardial infarction. Common activities that lead to anginal pain are exposure to cold, emotional upset or excitement, exertion, smoking, heavy meals, and rushing about as well as decongestants, diet pills, caffeine and nicotine. Prevention is the best treatment and includes reducing risk factors, reducing calories, fats, salt and getting regular exercise. Complications include arrhythmias, CHF, and MI. Nitrates open (dilate) the arteries to the heart. This increases blood flow to the heart, relieving chest pain or discomfort. Nitrates also dilate veins throughout the body so that they can hold more blood. This reduces the amount of blood going back to the heart, reducing the heart's workload. Calcium channel blockers are prescribed to treat angina (chest pain) and high blood pressure. Calcium channel blockers affect the movement of calcium in the cells of the heart and blood vessels. As a result, calcium channel blockers relax blood vessels and increase the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart, while reducing its workload. Calcium channel blockers may be used to treat heart failure caused by high blood pressure when other medications to lower blood pressure do not work. Beta-blockers are a class of drugs used to control symptoms of heart failure that are made worse by certain hormones called catecholamines. The body releases these hormones as part of its response to heart failure. Beta-blockers have a variety of effects throughout the body. They are used to treat heart disease that causes chest pain, high blood pressure, heart attacks, and cardiomyopathy and irregular, rapid heartbeats (arrhythmias). Beta-blockers are also used to prevent migraine headaches, treat tremors, and control anxiety. Beta-blockers may work by slowing the heart rate, which allows the left ventricle (the main pumping chamber of the heart) to fill more completely. Some of these medicines may also help open or widen blood vessels in the body.
Indication/Action Anginal prophylaxis Acute attack Reduce vascular resistance
Nursing Implications Monitor relief Have client rest Monitor vital signs Store medication in original container Protect from light
Nitroglycerine (NTG) Isorbide dintrate (Isordil) Isorbide mononitrate (imdur)
Headaches Flushing Dizziness Weakness Hypotension Nausea
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