Nursing 211

N211: Health Differences Across the Lifespan I Detection of colon and rectal cancer: all person’s age 50 and older should have a yearly fecal occult blood test; digital rectal examination and flexible sigmoidoscopy should be done every five years. Colonoscopy should be done every ten years. 3.4 Uterine Cancer Detection of uterine cancer: yearly Papanicolaou (Pap) smear for sexually active females and those over the age of 18. At menopause, high risk women should have endometrial tissue sample. 3.5 Prostate Cancer Detection of prostate cancer: beginning at age 50, have a yearly digital rectal examination and a yearly prostate specific antigen (PSA) test. Grading classifies cancer based on degree of abnormality of cells when examined under a microscope. Grading ratings of I to IV. (I being least abnormal and IV being most abnormal. 1. Grade I: cells slightly different than normal (mild dysplasia) 2. Grade II: cells more abnormal, moderately well differentiated (moderate dysplasia) 3. Grade III: cells clearly abnormal, poorly differentiated (severe dysplasia) 4. Grade IV: cells anaplastic (immature) and undifferentiated (cell origin difficult to determine) Staging: T indicates tumor size; N indicates lymph node involvement; M indicates distant metastasis • T0: no evidence of tumor • Tis: tumor in situ • T1, T2. T3, T4: progressive degrees of tumor size and involvement. • N0: no abnormal lymph nodes detected • N1a, N2a: regional lymph nodes involved with increasing degree from N1a to N2a; no metastasis detected. • N1b, N2b, N3b: progressive regional lymph nodes involvement; metastasis suspected. • Nx: inability to assess regional nodes • M0: no evidence of distal metastasis • M1, M2, M3: increasing degrees of distant metastasis and includes distant lymph nodes.

3.6 Benign Tumors of the Uterus


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