N211: Health Differences Across the Lifespan I
3.8 Fibrocystic Breast Disease Fibrocystic Breast Disease is defined as changes in the fibrous and cystic dilatation of the ducts. The etiology of fibrocystic breast condition is unknown. Estrogen is thought to be related to this condition. The cysts often fluctuate in size, depending on the menstrual cycle. Hormone replacement therapy may be associated with fibrocystic changes in a woman who previously not affected. Nursing Assessment Includes increase in breast lumpiness or nodules with pain, tenderness and swelling; lumps or cysts may be form or soft, round and movable. Nipple discharge may be present; it may be milky, yellow or greenish in color. Symptoms may decrease after the menstrual cycle. Diagnostics Includes mammogram to rule out calcification and culture of the nipple discharge if infection is suspected. Nursing Diagnosis • Pain related to presence of abnormal breast tissue • Knowledge deficit related to breast tissue changes and need to perform breast self- examinations Nursing Interventions Includes assist with aspiration of cyst fluid to relieve pain, administer over the counter analgesics, recommend a support bra, decrease caffeine and salt intake and add a vitamin E supplement. Medications that may be prescribed include oral contraceptives or, if symptoms are severe Danazol (Danocrine) is used to decrease breast stimulation. Symptoms usually recur once medication is stopped. 3.9 Pyloric Stenosis Pyloric Stenosis occurs when the circular muscle of the pyloric canal hypertrophies and impedes gastric emptying into the duodenum; inflammation and edema develop, which can lead to complete obstruction. Cause is unknown; however, there is often a positive family history of the disorder. Risk factors include hypergastrinemia (too much gastrin in the blood), infusion of prostaglandin E to treat ductus arteriosus, and treatment with oral erythromycin at less than one month of age. Pyloromyotomy is the creation of an incision along the anterior pylorus to split the muscle, is commonly performed to relieve the obstruction.
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