Speech Study Guide

credible. When a speaker fulfills the audience’s self-esteem needs, they are often deemed as effective and altruistic. Altruistic speakers are nearly always deemed as more effective. According to Maslow, the “highest” needs for an audience are self-actualization needs. Self- actualization needs reflect what most humans want, to realize our own potential. Generally speaking, people want to better themselves. However, few feel absolutely satisfied with their accomplishments. Some individuals seek material wealth, while others seek to effect change in the world around them. A speaker who promotes and encourages an audience to realize their full potential promotes notions and ideas that are not critical, but important to human well-being. The effect a speaker has on an audience depends on the needs of the audience the speaker is addressing, or the needs the audience already has met. A speaker can further the effect of their speech by appealing to the values of the audience, after having analyzed the audience to learn what their values are. When a speaker appeals to the needs of an audience, they are effective and influential. Some can even be charismatic. 2.4 Key Terms • Sex is defined as the two main divisions, either male or female, into which humans and many other living things can be categorized, based on reproductive functions. • Gender identity is the differences and similarities in howmen andwomen behave, what they value, and what they believe. • Gender roles are the specific role people are prescribed by their culture. • Socially constructed ideas are ideals about roles, behaviors, and modes of dress, which are influenced by different cultures and vary from culture to culture. • Sexual orientation refers to a person’s sexual preference in relation to the gender they are attracted to. • Race is a complicated concept. In order to define the term, it can be said that race is associated with biology. Race refers to a group of people that have distinct physical characteristics, which can cause people to treat other people differently because of these biological traits (racism). However, it has come to have less significance in regard to biology and genetics, due to encompassing political, social, and personal definitions. • The “melting pot” idea first came about due to the immense immigration the U.S. experienced. It was believed that cultures just melted and meshed to become one big culture. • The “salad bowl” idea is a concept where each group maintains themselves and adopts part of the whole around them, so eventually there are many microcultures within the larger culture. • Racism is the belief in the superiority or inferiority of particular races, which leads to prejudice, antagonism, fear, and oppression. It denies the essential humanity of those who are different and limits their potential for successful communication. • Ethnicity is the cultural background of an individual, where they are from, and where their family is from.


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