Speech Study Guide

Chapter Three: Topics and Speech Purposes Objectives: 1. Describe the types of communication. 2. Define the types of speeches. 3. Understand how to find and narrow a topic. 4. Clearly define the purpose and express the purpose of a speech. 3.1 Types of Communication In order to best understand the components of communication, there are a few integral concepts to all forms of communication that must be understood. There is a speaker , or sender, which is someone who gives information on a topic. When there is a speaker, there is always a receiver. Receivers interpret messages sent by others by listening, interpreting, and providing non-verbal feedback. Typically, messages are verbal utterances, visual images, and nonverbal behaviors employed to convey thoughts and feelings. The process of creating messages is encoding ; whereas the process of interpreting messages is decoding . Messages tend to be speeches prepared beforehand and presented. Listeners provide feedback. Feedback is a message sent by receivers to let the sender know how their message is being interpreted and may indicate understanding and reaction via nonverbal behavior. All communication occurs via channels. Channels are the routes of travel for a message. Primarily, messages travel via auditory and visual channels. When technology enhances these communication channels, they are referred to as mediated channels . In all forms of communication, there is noise or interference. Interference is any stimulus that interferes with the process of achieving a shared message, and can sometimes be physical or psychological. Physical interference is when something tangible occurs to disrupt the speaker. Psychological interference refers to thoughts and feelings experienced that compete with the sender’s message. With the understanding of these universal concepts of all types of communication, it is easier to understand the different types of communication. Communication context refers to the environment in which communication occurs. The context differs by participant numbers and the balance of roles and values among those participants. Intrapersonal communication is also referred to as “self-talk” or the idea of communicating with oneself. Typically, self-talk occurs when a person is thinking through choices, strategies, and consequences of taking an action. People communicate intrapersonally as a means of recognizing the need to rephrase an explanation or other concept. Interperso al communication occurs between two people with an identifiable relationship with each other. Sometimes this happens between two friends, on the phone, or during a public speech when there is a question and answer session and the speaker directs remarks to the audience members.


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