Speech Study Guide

In contrast, small group communication occurs when a small group of people, typically three to ten individuals, interact. Small group communication is in stark contrast to public or mass communication. Public communication occurs when there are more than ten people receiving a message by one primary sender. It can occur face to face or over media. One facet of public communication is mass communication , which is when communication is produced and transmitted via mass media to large segments of the population at the same time. 3.2 Types of Speeches Within the boundaries of communication are different types of speeches. An impromptu speech is a speech that is created within seconds or minutes of delivery. Typically, these speeches are delivered without any type of notes and are done under pressure. Due to the nature of these speeches, organizing and developing ideas may be difficult. As a result of these challenges, a speaker may leave out information and confuse audience members. Performing impromptu speeches helps to refine the skills needed to complete them well. Typically, this type of speech is encountered with employment, meetings, school, or social ceremonies. Some of the ways to organize thoughts for impromptu speeches are: • Anticipate the possibility of encountering the opportunity for an impromptu speech and think about possible content. If encountered during a class, take notes on the lecture and reference them if called on for an impromptu speech. • Practice active listening. If one is caught daydreaming when forced to give an impromptu speech, they are not likely to be able to organize their thoughts well. Active listening avoids being caught off guard. • Increase feelings of confidence by reminding oneself that no one is perfect. • Use all preparation time to one’s advantage. • Use basic principles of speech organization. • Speak briefly, calmly, and concisely. Unlike impromptu speeches, manuscript speeches are carefully prepared speeches that are designed for a specific issue, use specialized language, and allow the speaker to plan what to say, but they also have a written transcript of their remarks. Different settings call for manuscript speeches, typically in formal settings, versus informal settings. These speeches are also referred to as scripted speeches . Regardless of setting, they always require more time to prepare. Political speeches, keynote addresses, commencement addresses, and CEO remarks all tend to be scripted speeches. In contrast to manuscript speeches, extemporaneous speeches are researched and planned ahead but are not scripted word for word, thus presentations of the same speech vary slightly from speech to speech. When speaking extemporaneously, one refers to speaking in regard to key ideas, structure, and delivery cues. Generally speaking, these speeches are the easiest to give effectively because the speaker is able to prepare their thoughts ahead of time and have notes to prompt them during the actual presentation.


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