Speech Study Guide

Chapter Four: Structure and Organization

Objectives 1. Describe how to plan a speech. 2. List the components of structure. 3. Differentiate between the types of organizational patterns. 4. Understand the different types of outlines. 4.1 Developing an Effective Speech Plan Regardless of the setting or situation, a speech is more effective if the speaker has a speech plan. A speech plan is a strategy for achieving the goal of a speech. Since Ancient Rome, philosophers and academia have clarified the rules of public speaking in canons of rhetoric, which still hold true today. Canons of rhetoric are: • Invention (an effective speech contains persuading content) • Arrangement (clear organization) • Style (effective speech uses appropriate language) • Memory (effective speakers integrate creative content, language, presentational aids, and delivery) • Delivery (effective speakers deliver their speech with confidence, fluency, and strategic retention aids) Below are general guidelines to follow when creating a basic speech: • Decide on a purpose that is appropriate for the rhetorical situation. • Understand your audience and adapt your speech accordingly. • Gather and evaluate information. • Organize ideas into a well-structured outline. • If appropriate, choose, prepare, and use presentational aids. • Practice oral language and delivery style. 4.2 Speech Structure Structure is a framework to organize speech content. Clear structure helps an audience follow the ideas of a speaker and contains both macro and micro structure. Macrostructure is the overall organizational framework used to present speech content and is comprised of four elements: introduction, body, conclusion, and transitions. Formal outlines help a speaker see their macrostructure. Microstructure involves the specific language and styles within sentences. Effective speeches combine these elements.


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