Speech Study Guide

The second most common organizational pattern is spatial arrangement. Spatial order involves arranging items according to their physical position or association. Examples of spatial order or arrangement may include speeches explaining architectural plans for a new library or tourist attractions for a city (in terms of how to travel to each of them). A speech may also be organized categorically. Categorical order arranges ideas in a way that emphasizes distinct topics that address types, forms, qualities, or aspects of the speech. Under each category or topic, a speaker must elaborate on each point. For example, when speaking about the benefits of higher education, a speaker might discuss the intellectual, social, or economic advantages of education. This pattern of organization and the ones discussed thus far are particularly effective and well suited for informative speeches. Similar to climactic order in literature, climactic pattern/order , as it relates to a speech, begins with a simple idea and progresses to the most difficult idea, from the least important notion to the most important notion, or from the emotionally neutral points to the emotionally intense points. Typically, climactic order reflects audience needs and priorities, thus making it an effective way to arrange ideas if the speaker’s goal is to gain agreement or action. Climactic order is most often used in persuasive speeches with speakers hoping that the audience will remember and be moved by the last thing they hear from the speaker. It is natural for people to think about cause and effect or effect and cause. Causal patterns are useful for speakers who want their audience to understand how an idea or event has unfolded and the relationship between two things. It is important to remember that chronological relationships do not necessarily equal a causal relationship. Sometimes when one event follows another it occurs due to chance not cause. This method is effective for informative and persuasive speakers in particular. Causal patterns (cause and effect) are sometimes incorporated into a problem-solution pattern. Problem-solution patterns analyze a problem (effect) in terms of the contributing causes, and then propose a solution that the audience may endorse. Typically, this organizational pattern is used when analyzing different societal problems. Within problem-solution patterns there are two different sequences utilized: reflective thinking and motivated sequences. Reflective thinking sequence is a traditional problem-solution pattern based on John Dewey’s sequence of the same name. His sequences address seven questions: • How can the problem be defined and limited? • What are the causes and effects of the problem? • What are the effects of the problem and who has been hurt? • What are the criteria by which solutions should be judged? • What are the possible solutions and relative strengths or weakness of each? • What is the best solution for the problem? • How can a solution be put into effect? How much time is devoted to the discussion and elaboration of causes of a problem depends on the


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