Speech Study Guide

5.3 Reasoning Fallacies Regardless of the form of reasoning, speakers should test the validity of their arguments. Faulty reasoning might involve “arguing in circles.” If this occurs, a speaker will not be able to draw clear conclusions. Fallacies may involve faults in relevance, and unintentionally muddle a speaker’s thinking and organization. One of the most common reasoning fallacies is hasty generalizations . These occur when a claim is not supported or is supported with weak evidence. Supporting material that is cited needs to be representative of a speaker’s information in its entirety. A speaker should have enough supporting material and evidence to satisfy an audience. If a speaker does not provide sufficient evidence for a topic, the speaker will not appear to be credible or trustworthy. Ad hominem fallacies attack or praise the individual making the argument, instead of addressing the argument or problem itself. These types of fallacies have become popular in politics, when an individual’s character, integrity, or even intelligence falls under scrutiny, rather than the candidate’s ideas or proposals. Ad hominem fallacies occur often in the media when an individual is attacked or praised for a particular reason instead of looking at an overall issue. Related to ad hominem and hasty generalizations is the fallacy of guilt by association , which arises when ideas, people, or programs are judged solely on the basis of their associations with other ideas, people, programs, or groups. It does not assess the quality of an idea or argument and may dismiss ideas simply due to their connection. According to research, many individuals rate ideas, speeches, paintings, Facebook posts, or articles depending on who created the idea, speech, painting, post, or article. Conversely, guilt by association suggests individuals may discredit an otherwise good idea by associating it with an unpopular source. An example of this can be seen in how society reacts to specific dog breeds. If someone has had a dog bite by a specific breed, they may say all dogs of that breed are bad or aggressive. Hasty generalizations, ad hominem, and guilt by association fallacies are flawed because they tend to sidestep the real issues needing to be addressed. In addition, they debase the quality of our public discourse because they undermine the politics of ideas. False cause fallacy occurs when it is proven that there is no relationship between a supposed cause and effect. This is also called post hoc, ergo propter hoc, which means “after this, therefore because of this.” Just because one event happens after another does not mean the first event caused the second event, or that it was the only event to cause the second event. Speakers often fall into oversimplification, which can lead to this fallacy. False dilemma happens by suggesting there are only two alternatives when others may exist. Even with the oversimplification, which generally occurs with this fallacy, it may take on more complex forms by proposing three or more false alternatives. When an audience is confronted with complex issues, there are always many options they should be presented with. Otherwise, an audience may become suspicious of the speaker. A speaker must give all realistic alternatives so false dilemma is not committed.


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