Speech Study Guide

• Ad populum (appeal to popular beliefs) may also be called the “bandwagon appeal” and occurs when a speaker urges listeners to accept something simply because others do. • Non-sequitur is a fallacy that means “it does not follow” and occurs when a conclusion does not follow logically from arguments and the evidence that precedes it. • Ad verecundiam (appeal to tradition) is typically heard in contexts when ideas or policies that hold a long history are being challenged and may be expressed as, “We’ve never done it that way before,” or “This is the way we’ve always done it.” • Facts are data that can be verified by observation and are used by nearly every speaker. • Definitions are used to define a word or concept and can be straightforward or provide uncontroversial information, or challenge the audience to think in new or creative ways. • Statistics are empirical bits of data that are quantifiable and verifiable. • Examples provide concrete illustrations and interject life and meaning into the ideas a speaker is communicating; they can also function as compelling evidence. • Narrative examples are extended examples from a speaker’s research or their own experiences. • Hypothetical examples are examples that are plausibly real but not actually true or empirically verifiable. • Testimony consists of opinions, interpretation, or judgments of other people. There are three kinds of testimony: personal, lay, and expert. • Personal testimony happens in many speeches and may add to credibility. • Lay testimony is based on firsthand experience and comes from ordinary individuals, not necessarily from the speaker or an expert, whose personal experiences make their testimony compelling. • Expert testimony is one of the most frequently used types of evidence, especially when a speech is complicated or highly technical. • Prestige testimony can provide support for an argument if the source is perceived as intelligent, dedicated, well-educated, or inspirational (think of Goodwill Ambassadors, celebrities who work with charities or relief organizations).


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