Speech Study Guide

Chapter Six: Research

Objectives 1. Understand why research is important. 2. Demonstrate basics knowledge of how to conduct research. 3. List the types of research commonly used by speakers. 4. Discuss how to evaluate research. 5. Understand what citation is and how to use it (even in a verbal speech).

6.1 Why is Research Important? Effective speakers recognize the need to do research in order to find evidence to support their opinions and perspectives. No matter how credible a speaker may be, he or she may be perceived as ineffective and not credible if the claims are not well supported in evidence acquired through research. Speakers develop information literacy through practice and research. Information literacy involves knowing how to find and evaluate relevant information, recognizing what information is needed, and effectively incorporating that information into one’s research. The ability to develop information literacy is important to help speakers ascertain a source’s authenticity, validity, and reliability. When speakers have well developed information literacy, they are often deemed more effective and credible. 6.2 Types of Research Depending on their needs, the most effective and influential speakers engage in multiple types of research. Typically, speakers start with their own knowledge and experience and then move to secondary research , which is the process of locating information discovered by other people. Information or evidence may come in various forms, such as written, audio, visual, and audiovisual forms. Sometimes information acquired from secondary research is not sufficient, and a speaker must engage in primary research , which is the process of collecting data about a topic directly from the real world. No matter the type of research, speakers needs to evaluate their sources. One form of evidence may be the personal experience and knowledge of the speaker. When speakers choose to share their personal knowledge or experience, they should establish their credentials , or their experience and education that qualifies them to speak with authority on a specific subject. An audience is more likely to respond well to speakers who have properly established their credentials. Secondary research consists of gathering research from sources that are not acquired from the speaker personally. With the progression of technology, most individuals conduct research from online resources. Computers and other devices that connect to the internet provide individuals with a wealth of information. Typically, online searches begin with a key word, or words, typed into a


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