Speech Study Guide

word answers, others need a short response; by asking these questions, the interviewers can control the interview and obtain specific information quickly o Neutral questions: Do not direct a person’s answers; for example, “What can you tell me about your work?” o Leading questions: Guide respondents toward providing certain types of information and imply that the interviewer prefers one answer over another • Conducting the interview: To guide the process of conducting effective and ethical interviews, there is a list of best practices: o Dress professionally: Even if an interview is not face to face, when the interviewer is dressed well they are more confident and make a better impression. o Be prompt: Promptness demonstrates respect for both the interviewer and interviewee. o Be courteous: By introducing themselves, and thanking the interviewee, the interviewers show respect and authority. o Ask permission to record: If the interviewee says it is not okay to record the interview then their wishes should be respected and the interviewer should take more careful notes. o Listen carefully: It is crucial to repeat what the listener says at key points to ensure the speaker/interviewer understands. This will ensure that the answers reported will be done so truthfully and fairly. o Monitor nonverbal reactions: Integrity is demonstrated by maintaining eye contact. Nodding and smiling occasionally maintains a friendly persona. Body language and nonverbal reactions influence how the interviewee will “warm up.” o Get permission to quote: It is necessary to obtain permission for exact quotes. Doing so demonstrates the interviewer respects the interviewee and wants to report ideas honestly and fairly. This communicates integrity and responsibility. o Confirm credentials: It is pertinent to confirm the interviewee’s professional title and company or organization they represent. o End on time: Respect the begin and end times of the interview. o Thank the interviewee: After closing the interview, thank the interviewee. Closure leads to positive rapport that should be followed up later. • Processing the interview: Notes should be taken in outline to bullet-point form. The longer the wait to translate notes into full form, the more difficult it will be. If the speech was recorded it should be transcribed into written format. Original artifact or document examinations occur when information has not been published and an original artifact needs to be examined. Perhaps the object needs to be viewed, such as geographic features, buildings, monuments, or buildings. Experiments are conducted around hypothesis, which are educated guesses about a cause and effect relationship between one or more things. After a hypothesis is tested the results can be incorporated into a speech.


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