Speech Study Guide

6.5 Citation Any communication when information is used beyond the speaker’s own personal experience and knowledge should be cited. The reason this type of information needs to be cited is to avoid plagiarism. Plagiarism entails passing someone else’s information off as your own, without giving proper credit to the original source. By specifically mentioning sources it helps an audience to evaluate the content, but also adds to the speaker’s credibility. Oral footnotes are references to an original source that are made at the point in a speech where information from that source is presented. The key to these notes is to include enough information for listeners to access the sources themselves and offer enough credentials to enhance the credibility of the cited information. Citations are compiled in an annotated bibliography , which is a preliminary record of the relevant sources pertaining to a topic. These include short summaries of the information in that source and how it might be used to support the speech. It can also be used to create research cards as well as a reference list later. Listing resources can be done in a variety of ways. There are styles such as MLA, APA, Chicago, and CBE. The correct form depends on the professional or the academic discipline. Coordinate sources with notes to help save time when compiling a list of sources. 6.6 Key Terms • Information literacy involves knowing how to find and evaluate relevant information, recognizing what information is needed, and effectively incorporating that information into one’s research. • Secondary research is the process of locating information discovered by other people. • Primary research is the process of collecting data about a topic directly from the real world. • Credentials are experience or education that qualifies someone to speak with authority on a specific subject. • Skimming is a method of rapidly going through a source to determine what is covered and how to use that information. • Valid sources convey factual information that can be counted on as true. • Accurate sources attempt to present unbiased information and include a balanced discussion of controversial topics. • Reliable sources are sources that have a history of presenting valid and accurate information. • Authority is the first test of a source to determine the expertise of the author and/or the reputation of the publishing organization. • Objectivity refers to a source’s ability to not express one particular attitude, perspective, or viewpoint on a topic. • Relevance refers to how pertinent the information is for a specific topic or audience. • Ethnography involves the observation of a group of people and their practices while being immersed in the community of observation. • Surveys consist of canvassing people to get information about their ideas and opinions; they may be conducted in person, over the phone, via the internet, or in paper-and-pencil documents. • Interviews are highly structured conversations where one person asks questions and another


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