Speech Study Guide

©2017 of 80 Effective speakers will combine these components of speech, or different components, to give a speech more depth and creativity. When a speech lacks these components, they tend to be bland and dull. Audiences listen and respond well to speeches that have a mixture (but not too much) of figures of speech. 7.4 Types of Language Beyond the basic figures of speech, a speaker should learn to use language in different ways. Some audiences and settings call for one type of language while other settings need different language. Speakers may use vocalized pauses , which are unnecessary words interjected into sentences to fill moments of silence. Words commonly used for this purpose are “like,” “you know,” “really,” “basically,” “um,” “well,” or “uh.” Sometimes vocalized phrases are called “verbal garbage.” Use of these words conveys to an audience that the speaker is not confident and does not have a command of a topic. Few vocalized pauses do not typically cause a hindrance to a speech, and may be avoided by practicing a speech and managing speech apprehension. A speaker may be better able to capture and maintain an audience’s attention. Speaking vividly is one effective way to accomplish this. Vivid language is language that is full of life; it is vigorous, bright, and intense. More than the use of vivid language, a speaker may employ sensory language and can make their ideas come to life and fully engage their audience. Sensory language appeals to the senses of seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, and feeling. Vivid sensory language begins with vivid thought. An audience is more likely to express themselves vividly if they can physically or psychologically sense the meanings of the speaker. In order to develop vivid sensory language, a speaker begins with how they would recreate what something, someone, or some place looks like. Such language can arouse and maintain listener’s interests and helps the speaker’s ideas become more memorable. Speakers may choose to use specific language to clarify meaning by using precise words that narrow what is understood from a general category to a particular item or group within that category. Choosing specific language is easier when the speaker has a large working vocabulary. If a speaker has a large vocabulary, they have more words to choose from when using specific language. Speakers may increase their vocabularies via studying, taking notes of unfamiliar words, or by using a thesaurus to identify synonyms that may offer more specific options. With a large vocabulary, speakers may fall into the trap of wanting to impress their audience. As a result of this trap, speakers do not use specific or precise words; they aim to elect words which appear pompous, affected, or stilted to the listener. One of the most effective ways to reach an audience is through the use of familiar terms. The use of familiar terms is as important as the use of specific words. Speakers should avoid the use of jargon, slang, abbreviations, and acronyms, unless they are defined clearly the first time they are used. Jargon is a unique technical term of a trade or profession that is not generally understood by outsiders. Good speakers are able to recognize when they use jargon and avoid it. Speakers should also strive to avoid Achieve Test Prep Page 61

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