Speech Study Guide

• Metaphors are like similes in that they compare objects that the audience may think of as dissimilar. Unlike similes, the comparison is not so direct and does not use words such as “like” or “as.” • Analogies are extended metaphors. • Alliteration is the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words that are near one another. • Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds in a phrase or phrases. • Onomatopoeia is the use of words that sound like the things they stand for. • Personification is attributing human qualities to a concept or an inanimate object. • Repetition is restating words, phrases, or sentences for emphasis. • Antithesis is the combination of contrasting ideas in the same sentence. • Irony is a device that is typically used to highlight something absurd, or a bitter disconnect between what is asserted and what is real. Irony is a way to strongly imply a meaning that is opposite of what is stated. • Vocalized pauses are unnecessary words interjected into sentences to fill moments of silence. • Vivid language is language that is full of life; it is vigorous, bright, and intense. • Sensory language appeals to the senses of seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, and feeling. • Specific language is language used to clarify meaning by using precise words that narrow what is understood from a general category to a particular item or group within that category. • Jargon is a unique technical term of a trade or profession that is not generally understood by outsiders. • Slang is informal, nonstandard vocabulary whose definitions are assigned to words by a social group or co-culture. • Hearing is a physiological process of receiving and processing sound. • Listening is the process of receiving, attending to, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken or nonverbal messages. • Appreciative listening occurs when listening to music for enjoyment and to speakers because the audience likes their style. • Discriminative listening occurs when an audience listens to infer what more a speaker might mean beyond the words they are saying. • Comprehensive listening occurs when the listener’s goal is to understand, remember, and recall information. • Empathic listening occurs when the listener wants to provide emotional support. • Critical listening occurs when an audience wants to understand and critically evaluate the worth of a message and requires more psychological processing than other forms of listening. • Listening apprehension is the anxiety felt about listening, and may increase when the listener is worried about misinterpreting the message or when the listener is concerned about how the message may affect the listener psychologically. • Listening styles are the favored and usually unconscious approach to listening. Each listener has


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