Speech Study Guide

a favored style, with only a few people being able to effectively switch between styles based on the situation. • Content-oriented listeners focus on and evaluate the facts and evidence, while appreciating details and enjoying processing complex messages that may include technical information. • People-oriented listeners focus on the feelings their conversational partners may have about what is being said. • Action-oriented listeners focus on the ultimate point the speaker is trying to make. They tend to get frustrated when ideas are disorganized and when people ramble. • Time-oriented listeners prefer brief and hurried conversations and often use nonverbal and verbal cues to signal that their partner needs to be more concise. • Passive listening is the habitual and unconscious process of receiving messages. Listeners are on auto pilot and tend to listen this way when they are not interested in the topic. • Active listening is the deliberate and conscious process of attending to, understanding, remembering, evaluating, and responding to messages. It requires practice. • Passivity syndrome is the notion that listening is easy and the responsibility for good listening rests with the speaker. It is rooted in the view of public speaking being one way. • Automatic rejection involves the rejection of a speaker who challenges the existing beliefs or values of a speaker. • Stereotyping is making ill-founded generalizations about a specific group of people based on race, ethnicity, gender, religion, or age. • Attending is the process of intentionally perceiving and focusing on a message. • Understanding is accurately interpreting a message. • A question is a statement designed to clarify information or get additional details. • Paraphrasing is putting a message into a listener’s own words. • A mnemonic device associates a special word or short statement with new and longer information. • Constructive critique is an evaluative response that identifies what was effective and what could be improved in a message.


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