Speech Study Guide How can the problem be defined and limited? What are the causes and effects of the problem? What are the effects of the problem and who has been hurt? What are the criteria by which solutions should be judged? • What are the possible solutions and relative strengths or weakness of each? • What is the best solution for the problem? • How can a solution be put into effect? 4. Motivated sequence is best suited to a topic with emotional and logical appeal. This approach tends to work best for basic needs, as defined by Maslow, and is organized around five steps. • Arouse: Capture audience attention and focus on the problem. • Need: Help listeners to understand there is a problem that needs their attention and action. • Gratify: Reveal solutions to the problem and assure listeners they possess the power to remedy a situation. • Visualize: Through effective language, a speaker can help listeners form a mental picture of how they can improve their situation. • Action: Appeal to the audience to take specific action. 5. Macrostructure is the overall organizational framework used to present speech content and is comprised of four elements: introduction, body, conclusion, and transitions. Formal outlines help a speaker to see their macrostructure. Microstructure involves the specific language and styles within sentences. Effective speeches combine these elements. 6. Section transitions are complete sentences that show the relationship between and bridge major parts of the speech. Typically, these transitions summarize what has been said in one point and preview the next, essentially acting as the glue that holds a macrostructure of a speech together. These transitions are important to help an audience follow the organization of ideas in a speech and help the audience remember the information. Signposts are words or phrases that connect pieces of supporting material to the main point or sub-points. Chapter 5 1. A 2. A persuasive strategy created by constructing logical arguments that support a speaker’s point of view. 3. A strategy that highlights a speaker’s competence, credibility, and good character as a means to convince an audience. 4. A persuasive strategy that appeals to the emotions of a listener to convince others of a speaker’s position. 5. “After this, therefore because of this.” 6. Research, preparation, audience adaptation, and proofreading outlines are ways to avoid fallacies. • • • •


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