Humanities (Abridged)

Humanities Study Guide ©2020 Achieve Page 10 of 14 Symbolism is when an object represents an idea other than the object itself. Common examples of symbolism include a heart to show love, a dove to represent peace, or a smiley face to express happiness. When we discuss literature in detail, some of the first elements we will explore are tone and mood. The tone is the author's attitude towards a topic. Someone who writes a poem about how they hate broccoli has a negative tone towards the vegetable. The mood is what the author creates to make the audience feel a certain way about a topic. When the writer uses tone and mood properly, it helps the reader determine how to feel. Both elements require the reader to infer while reading because it is often not stated plainly in the text. Generally, every piece of literature has a character. Characterization is the development of characters within the story. There tend to be two types of characters, static and dynamic. Static characters stay the same throughout the story; they do not evolve or have an "ah- ha" moment. Dynamic characters, however, change or grow throughout the story. An author typically uses two approaches to deliver information about a character and to build their image. Direct/Explicit characterization takes a straightforward approach towards building the character. The author uses another character or the narrator to tell the reader who this person is. Indirect/implicit characterization is much more subtle. The author introduces the character to the audience, but they have to deduce who they are by the way they act, the character's thought process, speech, or behavior. Both types of characterization achieve the task of introducing the character, but the traits and qualities of the individual are perceived differently. Authors also use different techniques to place the reader in a position in the story. In the first- person point of view , the author writes the story from the perspective of a character in the story and uses words like "I" and "we" frequently. Second-person writing is used to connect the reader to the text, using words like "you" to imply the reader's position in the piece. The author uses this point of view when he or she talks directly to the reader. The second-person point of view often can be seen in non-fiction pieces such as speeches, letters, and advertisements, and is rarely used in fictional works. The third-person point of view happens when the author tells the story through an outsider's perspective. The third person takes two forms, omniscient and limited. Think of the meaning of the word "omniscient." Omniscient means "all-knowing." When an author tells a story through the omniscient point of view, the author or narrator tells the story from an outsider's perspective, describing what is going on around them. Still, they also know what every character is thinking in the plot. Limited is also told from an outsider's perspective using words like "he," "she," "they," but they do not know what everyone is thinking. Instead, the narrator only knows what one character is thinking and feeling in the story. These elements help place us in the story plot and offer unique experiences. Think about your favorite novel, and imagine it told from a different point of view. Think about how this changes the presentation of the story. Conflicts occur not only in life but also in literature, and they can be between two people, one person or nature herself. We use this term here to describe the struggle between two opposing forces. Internal c nflict addresses the struggle a character has with his or her own emotions or intentions, whereas external conflict deals with the struggle between two specific characters. The theme is the message the author is trying to convey, usually not a cliche or moral. Some common themes that authors might use include friendship, love, relationships, and loyalty. Identifying the theme of a story is a higher-order thinking skill and requires the reader to make

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