Humanities (Abridged)

Humanities Abridged Study Guide 1st Edition 6/18/2020

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Humanities Study Guide

Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction to Humanities ................................................................................................................ 4 1.1 What are Humanities? ................................................................................................................................ 4 1.2 Painting ....................................................................................................................................................... 4 1.3 Sculpture ..................................................................................................................................................... 6 1.4 Architecture ................................................................................................................................................ 6 1.5 Music ........................................................................................................................................................... 7 1.6 Dance .......................................................................................................................................................... 8 1.7 Literature .................................................................................................................................................... 9 Chapter 1 Review Questions ...........................................................................................................................12 Chapter 1 Answer Key .......................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

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Humanities Study Guide

©2020 Achieve Page 4 of 14 Tempera is a paint that is usually mixed and bound by egg yolk. It produces a flat color and is typically used on wood surfaces. Cimabue's Madonna and Child Enthroned with Angels is an example of a painting that uses tempera. Fresco is a color pigment that gets dissolved in lime water. Once combined, the substance is applied to wet plaster to dry very quickly. Because of the plaster, it is usually used on walls or ceilings like Michelangelo's Creation of Adam. The downside of this medium is that the paint dries quickly, which leaves no room for error. Oil paints are versatile, allowing the painter to choose the thickness, and they are slow to dry, which leaves room for corrections. Watercolor is slightly translucent in color, but it lends to broad brushstrokes that are typically less detailed than other paints. Acrylic paint takes on a plastic-like resin that dries quickly and is easy to apply. This paint has become extremely popular with modern artists for a wide range of intensity in color and versatility. Artists in Asian countries have been using ink as their medium of choice for centuries. Lastly, when the artist blends a plethora of elements like acrylic, sand, and gold leaf, this is known as Mixed Media. Chapter 1: Introduction to Humanities 1.1 What are Humanities? Humanities are the study of the creative processes that humans have historically used to express themselves. These include but are not limited to arts such as paintings, sculptures, dance, music, and literature. The focus is to unpack these arts not for their physical worth, but for how they bring awareness to the values that connect us as humans. By looking at these works of art, we can understand other cultures, past and present. Art has helped many people celebrate the good and remember the devastating times in history. Art teaches us what humans have valued throughout time and pushes us to think about our own experiences in creative ways as well. Bluntly put, art reveals the essence of our existence as humans by bringing emotion to life. When studying humanities, we have five important terms to remember when speaking about art: values, taste, artistic form, perception , and conception . Values, which can vary from person to person, are objectives and events that we care about. Taste, on the other hand, is someone's personal preference. This can be anything from ice cream, to music, to perfume; it's what that individual likes. Artistic Form is an artistic composition or structure that conveys meaning. Not like a statue, although it could be, think of a novel, sonnet, or painting. Perception is, as it sounds, anything you can observe. Conception reflectively is what you already know. We will use these terms throughout the course to refer to the art we are studying. 1.2 Painting Paintings are our snapshots throughout history. In our daily life, the magic of the world around us becomes mundane, and we often lose our sensitivity to light, color, texture, and beauty in our lives. Paintings give a little bit of that magic back as they invite us to look at the patterns, texture, composition, color, reflections of light, lines, shapes, and the use of different types of paint. In the art world, the medium is the artist's paint of choice . The most common forms of mediums used in paintings are tempera, fresco, oil, watercolor, and acrylic. Artists surprisingly need more than just paint to create a masterpiece; they need a binder. A binder is a substance that is applied to the canvas to allow the paint to stick. Medium

Humanities Study Guide Lines and Colors Line is a continuous marking made by making a point on a surface. Horizontal and vertical lines can help separate elements neatly in a picture providing a pleasing aesthetic. Diagonal lines, on the other hand, have a way of making the viewer feel tension or movement. If the painter desires to convey softness and flow, they will typically use curving lines. Shapes present in paintings can be linear, irregular, regular, or just meant to evoke emotions. Shapes create perspective or the illusion of depth. Piet Mondrian's Broadway Boogie Woogie is an example of a linear artwork. Painters and art critics often sight the imaginary line that determines the basic visual direction of the painting called the Axis line. Color and Light Colors are all around us; they can be used to evoke emotions, create depth, and emphasize features. In art, hue, saturation, and value are the three elements that compose color. Hue is the name of the color itself. Saturation is the pureness or vividness of the color, such as the redness of red. Value is the shading and definition in a painting. Paintings themselves have so many components to them, but something that artists enjoy in works of art is texture. Texture is how the painting itself feels. Brushes with paint on them leave brushstrokes as well as knives with paint on them. Patterns are often present in all types of art; we define patterns as the repetition of shapes, lines, or images. Compositions Another element of art that we need to discuss is composition. Composition refers to the organization and relationship of elements to one another. There are six principles for evaluating a painting's composition. The first is balance or the equilibrium of opposing visual forces in a painting. Leonardo's Last Supper is an excellent example of symmetry. He uses the shape of the individuals at the table to balance one another off of the verticals axis and main character. Gradation is the second of the six elements, and it refers to the changes in details and regions like the gradual variations of shapes, shadowing, and colors. Despite paintings being pictures on flat surfaces, they can still imply movement of their subjects. Movement and rhythm are the way that paintings control the viewer's vision. A great example of this is shown in The Creation of Adam because the audience can feel God moving from right to left to touch Adam's finger. These elements can lead your eye to see the scene as if it were a real clip into the past. Proportion is the term we use to describe the emphasis on items in the work due to their scaling. For example, consider a painting with a large donkey and small people in the background. The donkey is large, implying that it is closer than the tiny people who are presumably far away. When we look at all the elements in a painting and how cohesive it feels, we consider this the unity. Lastly, we have variety, or the contrast of details, colors, shapes, and regions within a work of art. All of these elements together create the composition of a painting. Abstract Paintings When we picture great paintings in our minds, we typically picture those with clearly defined subjects, like women, ducks, or ponds. When we lose sight of what we are looking at, it can be easy to dismiss the work for something childish or not worthy of prestige. This concept would break a lot of abstract artist's hearts. Abstract or non-representational paintings typically have no subject, but they emphasize lines, color, and texture. The goal of abstract art is to represent the qualities and elements that stimulate our vision or sensa. By appealing to our sensa, abstract art frees us from our human habit of only seeing past or present subjects and not diving into our emotions. Another aspect of abstract art is presentational immediacy or having an awareness of something all at once, not piece by piece. For example, this would be like looking at a painting and seeing the artwork while recalling a memory or dreaming of a new place. ©2020 Achieve Page 5 of 14

Humanities Study Guide

©2020 Achieve Page 6 of 14 Evaluating Paintings When we evaluate paintings, it is important to look at the qualities we have discussed and how they contribute to the painting. 1.3 Sculpture Unlike paintings, sculptures are predominately things we picture as being three dimensional. They are ancient forms of creative expression that transcend time. Typically, they are either representative or abstract. One of the most common subjects of sculptors is the human body and its various forms. The first sculptures we will discuss are sunken relief , and for these works, sculptors typically carve into a rock. They project inwards and are dependent on light and touch to be experienced. Low relief sculptures also project inwards but are not as prominent as sunken. The depth of the sculpture or risen parts is minimal. High r lief sculptures refer to art that has still been carved into the material, while some remains connect to the source, but there is a portion protruding and emphasized. Full-round sculptures are difficult and free standing. These are the three-dimensional sculptures that we picture in our brains. Sculptures can be made of almost any material, but there are generally only two ways for an artist to create them. The first way is the subtractive process or removing material to create the work of art. Usually, this is done with stone or wood, and the artist chips away, sands, and takes off layers until they are finished. The additive process creates sculptures by layering material one on top of another. This process is common with plaster, clay, wax, and sometimes metal. The artist's process is unique to them and can be altered however they choose; these are merely examples of the most common. Other elements that add to sculptures are texture, movement, and location. Although statues in formal settings are discouraged from being physically touched, our minds still understand what it would feel like to touch them. This concept is related to the texture of the sculpture; it can add a conveyed meaning. For example, David is made of marble, which is smooth and appears flawless; this makes the statue feel perfect, pristine, and almost inhuman. Similarly, metal can feel industrial and harsh, and wood feels rustic and primitive. These are subjective and dependent on your personal taste, but critics agree that the material conveys meaning. The way the sculptor places the body or subject can give off a feeling of movement. Some positions imply stagnation, while others can make you feel like they are in mid-step by the placement of the foot. Freed sculptures are pieces of art that move. This type of sculpture has become more prevalent in modern times, especially after the creation of the mobile in the 20th century. Lastly, the location, where the sculptor places and intends for the sculpture to be, is often part of the artwork. Most of the sculptures are placed in temples, churches, and nationalist locations, while others are in parks or select areas that influence the inspiration of the art itself. People use all these elements and traits to evaluate sculptures. 1.4 Architecture Architecture has been evolving for centuries, and when we look through the past, we can see how the buildings were unique and creative structures. Architecture is an excellent hollowed-out structure that we experience by moving through its insides and outsides. Architecture is defined as the shaping of buildings and spaces. Due to the cost of building such monumental structures, great architecture is associated strongly with money and power. Three essential elements must be present in great architecture: design, material, and function.

Humanities Study Guide Design is the most important part of a building because it is the way it uses space. Remember, architecture is an art form that gets to encapsulate a space and turn it into something else. An architect or artist creates a centered space by taking this space and focusing it on an object or feature . The object or feature may have a gravity towards it, where everything seems to lead to this one location within the building. When an architect designs space to promote comfort, calm, and a feeling of freedom, we call this living space. Sometimes the building itself is the center of life, and everything bustles around its doors; this is called a configurational center. Although the buildings themselves are works of art, they also hold a purpose for everyday life. For example, consider the great Notre Dame. Most people would not mistake it for a hospital or office building; the function or purpose is evident. The earliest architects constructed their buildings with their function at the forefront of their minds. Whether it was a temple to honor God or a palace for royalty, it should be appealing to the eye and serve its purpose. Depending on the function and time period, the elements of the exterior will vary. One type of the earliest beam constructions is the post-and-lintel. This form uses strong, vertical pieces to support top horizontal sections, and it was one of the first found building designs after earth formations. Stylobate is a thick, stone base at the bottom, supporting a column, like the columns you would see at the Greek temple ruins. A column is the vertical support beam that holds up the roof. Although we need support in modern times, we do not typically see columns in our everyday housing. The entablature is the horizontal parts at the top of the columns or vertical beams used for decoration or embellishment. The pediment, or the point at the top of a build that looks like an obtuse triangle laid on its widest side, is another design element that architects have used. Before an architect can even begin with these design elements, they must choose the material. The longevity of the structure and its ability to withstand the fierce forces of nature will depend on the material that is used. This choice can also reflect how the exterior or outside of the building is perceived. Sometimes the outside of a structure is for beauty, and the interior is all about function. Other times, the exterior is about function rather than decoration. It solely depends on the architect. We use these elements above to evaluate architecture. 1.5 Music Music is the oldest and most powerful of the arts, partially because sounds can create involuntary reactions. Whether a person listens to a vocalist or a person singing words, they will react to the sounds produced and their correlation to the words. Imagine listening to the saddest song you have ever heard; similarly, think about a happy or exciting song. You likely reacted to the beat and lyrics of the song, which made the experience memorable. When we analyze music, we first need to understand the language. The tone is the musical sound or what is being sung or played. Scale is a predetermined sequence of notes. The Sound of Music's do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, ti, do, is an example of a major scale. When we refer to the color of music, we are talking about how the tones sound. Some examples of color in music are bright, dark, and raspy. Pitch refers to how high or low a sound is. Dynamics describe what movement the music is taking on a decibel level. For example, when a musician creates music that goes from quiet to loud, it is called a crescendo. A decrescendo is the opposite when the music goes from loud to soft. The composer , or creator of the music, marks these on the music +using piano (quiet) , pianissimo (noticeably quiet) , forte (loud) , fortissimo (very loud), and others. ©2020 Achieve Page 7 of 14

Humanities Study Guide A composer is a person who wrote the music. They combine tempo, rhythm, and melody to represent an internal tune. The tempo is how fast or slow the music should be played or sung. Rhythm is the beat or unique combination of accents and duration of notes. Melody is the series of notes that take center stage to the audiences' ears. The typical arrangement of melody in songs follows an A-B-A format. For instance, an initial melody (A) is followed by a slightly different melody (B) and then the restatement of the first melody (A). All of these are played within a key or an agreed-upon scale consisting of certain intervals between notes. Also, a predetermined meter tells the musicians how many beats one musical note gets. Lastly, we occur chords or notes that, when played together, can represent an entire musical key. Guitarists generally play chords more than individual notes. Chords can have consonance or dissonance within them. Consonance is the sounds that two notes make that are usually appealing to the average ear. Dissonance is when two or more notes do not sound "good" to the average listener. They will clash in some way that is displeasing. When this happens, it creates contrast or variation in the sounds of the music. Usually, this contrast is achieved by a variety of musical instruments and the different colors they produce. One thing we cannot agree on is the purpose of music. Some believe it is for whimsical enjoyment, while others think it is challenging to the brain's growth and development. In the early days, people told stories through music and passed along lessons from generation to generation. Historically it has been used to define countries, praise God, and signal the start of war. Usually, the setting in which a performance is about to take place is a good indicator of the purpose of the performance. 1.6 Dance The ancient, culturally unique art form of dance can be challenging to define and describe to someone. Ultimately, dance is defined as the moving body shaping the space around it. The focus remains on the visual patterns the body makes that draws the audiences' attention. Dance is typically performed on a stage and contains some similarities to theater, such as music and a narrative. While some dancers improvise or make it up on the spot, most perform a choreographed piece. A choreographer is someone who designs and coordinates a dance, usually with multiple dancers involved. Most popular dances are trying to tell a story or evoke an emotion from the spectator. They may use a technique called mimetic, where they imitate real-life motions to convey their story. The art form of dance wholly includes rhythm and a pattern that the dancer's body follows. Historically, people have used dance as a part of ancient rituals and social venues. For example, African tribes beat drums and chant to celebrate a boy reaching manhood, or social court dances occurred during the Middle Ages as a way for families to connect with others and form new relationships. For this course, we will categorize dance into one of these groupings. Ballet is the ancient and demanding art form that highlights leaps, poses, and turns, with the intent to tell a story set to music. Those who aspire to be professional ballerinas must undergo rigorous, painful training that pushes the human body to its full potential. Popular dance includes traditional dances performed at ceremonies, social events, or religious services. In modern times, we could use the Macarena as an example of a social dance. These dances are highly, complex and require previously attained social knowledge. The last form is modern dance, which for us, is defined as a dance that focuses on freedom and self-expression. That is not to say that other dances do not allow the participants to express themselves; a high school prom is one example of these types of dances. ©2020 Achieve Page 8 of 14

Humanities Study Guide

©2020 Achieve Page 9 of 14 Anaphoric is the repetition of the first part of a sentence or phrase. We can see examples of this in many great works of literature. One famous example can be found in the following biblical verse: "There is a time for everything and a season for everything under the heavens; a time to be born and a time to die, a time to plant and a time to uproot,..." The phrase "a time for" repeats several times in this paragraph. An antithesis is a juxtaposition or a meeting of two opposing ideas. An author uses antithesis when he presents two different thoughts in a sentence: "United we stand, divided we fall." A Euphemism is a gentler, more diplomatic way of saying something. People use euphemisms to describe something without explicitly stating it. Instead of saying "he is bald," a person might say, "he is getting thin on top." A hyperbole is an overstatement or an exaggeration. Some common hyperboles are "I had to wait in line all day" or "I'm so hungry I could eat a horse." We consider statements like these to be hyperboles because the person exaggerates the truth to some extent. Imagery is an author's use of descriptive words to paint a mental picture for the reader. Imagery evokes all five senses and draws on one's humanity. Irony is the use of words so that the intended meaning is different than the actual purpose . An author uses irony when they say one thing, but often mean or do the opposite. For instance , sharing an article on Facebook about the uselessness of Facebook would be an example of irony. Personification is the assignment of human characteristics to nonhuman elements. For example, "The leaf danced in the wind" is an example of personification because a leaf cannot dance, such as a human can dance. Metaphors and similes are similar in that they both compare two things. A metaphor is an indirect comparison between two dissimilar or unrelated things. A metaphor does not use "like" or "as," but sometimes uses "are" or "is." "Her smile is the sunshine on a rainy day" is one example of a metaphor. The author compares the girl's smile to sunshine on a rainy day, or indirectly, he equates her smile to happiness on a sad day. A simile is a direct comparison between two things, ideas, objects, or people. A simile typically uses the words "like" or "as." For example, "the boy ran quietly like a mouse through the hall" is an example of a simile. In this case, the author compares the boy's running to a quiet mouse. 1.7 Literature Before we as humans could write down the lessons and stories of our ancestors, we used songs and the spoken word. Ezra Pound once described great literature, "{as}language charged with meaning to the utmost possible degree." We use literature to encompass a variety of writing types, but we can classify them all into two groups. Poetry, a work that uses stanzas to arrange words into a free- flowing piece, and prose, paragraphs that follow traditional grammar rules. Usually, we discuss the elements of the art style in detail before analyzing it, but with literature, we need to know what to look for before reading it. When reading poetry or prose, a person should reflect on the underlying meaning. The first step includes discussing how the author uses rhetorical devices to communicate a message to readers. Next, we address the time period in which the work was created and decide if additional context is needed. Lastly, after we read, we look for a deeper meaning or theme to understand the message the author was trying to convey. Authors use many literary devices to convey meaning in text. To understand literature at its greatest, we must become familiar with these terms. Firstly, an allegory is something that represents a real-life event, person, or issue. Think of it as a reference to something real in that time period or culture. An allusion is an indirect reference to a historical, cultural, social, literary, or political event, figure, or concept. Martin Luther King Jr's speech I have a Dream refers to the political, social, and cultural unrest at the time.

Humanities Study Guide ©2020 Achieve Page 10 of 14 Symbolism is when an object represents an idea other than the object itself. Common examples of symbolism include a heart to show love, a dove to represent peace, or a smiley face to express happiness. When we discuss literature in detail, some of the first elements we will explore are tone and mood. The tone is the author's attitude towards a topic. Someone who writes a poem about how they hate broccoli has a negative tone towards the vegetable. The mood is what the author creates to make the audience feel a certain way about a topic. When the writer uses tone and mood properly, it helps the reader determine how to feel. Both elements require the reader to infer while reading because it is often not stated plainly in the text. Generally, every piece of literature has a character. Characterization is the development of characters within the story. There tend to be two types of characters, static and dynamic. Static characters stay the same throughout the story; they do not evolve or have an "ah- ha" moment. Dynamic characters, however, change or grow throughout the story. An author typically uses two approaches to deliver information about a character and to build their image. Direct/Explicit characterization takes a straightforward approach towards building the character. The author uses another character or the narrator to tell the reader who this person is. Indirect/implicit characterization is much more subtle. The author introduces the character to the audience, but they have to deduce who they are by the way they act, the character's thought process, speech, or behavior. Both types of characterization achieve the task of introducing the character, but the traits and qualities of the individual are perceived differently. Authors also use different techniques to place the reader in a position in the story. In the first- person point of view , the author writes the story from the perspective of a character in the story and uses words like "I" and "we" frequently. Second-person writing is used to connect the reader to the text, using words like "you" to imply the reader's position in the piece. The author uses this point of view when he or she talks directly to the reader. The second-person point of view often can be seen in non-fiction pieces such as speeches, letters, and advertisements, and is rarely used in fictional works. The third-person point of view happens when the author tells the story through an outsider's perspective. The third person takes two forms, omniscient and limited. Think of the meaning of the word "omniscient." Omniscient means "all-knowing." When an author tells a story through the omniscient point of view, the author or narrator tells the story from an outsider's perspective, describing what is going on around them. Still, they also know what every character is thinking in the plot. Limited is also told from an outsider's perspective using words like "he," "she," "they," but they do not know what everyone is thinking. Instead, the narrator only knows what one character is thinking and feeling in the story. These elements help place us in the story plot and offer unique experiences. Think about your favorite novel, and imagine it told from a different point of view. Think about how this changes the presentation of the story. Conflicts occur not only in life but also in literature, and they can be between two people, one person or nature herself. We use this term here to describe the struggle between two opposing forces. Internal c nflict addresses the struggle a character has with his or her own emotions or intentions, whereas external conflict deals with the struggle between two specific characters. The theme is the message the author is trying to convey, usually not a cliche or moral. Some common themes that authors might use include friendship, love, relationships, and loyalty. Identifying the theme of a story is a higher-order thinking skill and requires the reader to make

Humanities Study Guide inferences about the text. A suitable method for determining the theme is to ask yourself to summarize the writing in a single word or phrase after reading. Then stretch that word into a statement to determine the message that the author was trying to convey. Poetry When we analyze poetry, we are looking at how the poet arranged the poem on the paper. We consider how many stanzas are present, the punctuation, and the breaks in the lines. The diction is the word choice that the author makes. The informal or formal phrases and words can change the tone, characterization, and theme of the poem. Sonic devices are resources used by writers to convey and reinforce the meaning or experience of their writing through the skillful use of sound. These are especially important for poets. After all, poets are trying to use a concentrated blend of sound and imagery to evoke an emotional response. Understanding sonic devices is crucial both for analysis and for one's writing. One sonic device is alliteration , which uses a stream of words that all start with the same first phoneme. For example, "someone sang a song" uses alliteration since four of the words begin with the same "s" sound. The use of alliteration can suggest a humorous or even a threatening tone. These sentences are typically interrupted by required words used to clarify the meaning, like "and," "for," and "to." Assonance is the repetition of a similar set of vowel sounds, typically used to emphasize intensity, mood, and imagery. Examples of assonance include "go and mow the lawn" or "here and there and everywhere." A cacophony is defined as a harsh mixture of sounds. In poetry, a cacophony is the use of words with harsh consonants, usually at the beginning of a word. A poet might use cacophony to set a mood of negativity and unhappiness. An onomatopoeia is a word that attempts to emulate a sound such as bang, zoom, crash, and smack. Poets use onomatopoeias to make their writing enjoyable and to provide variety in their poems. A combination of all these elements can determine the heart and intention of a work of literature. We have now looked at a variety of essential terms across all the humanities. With this understanding of the foundations of literature and humanities, we can build upwards and explore each art form throughout history. In the next part of this book, we will look at each humanity in more detail and learn about specific works of art throughout time.

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Humanities Study Guide

Chapter 1 Review Questions 1.

2. Which of the following is an example of an internal conflict? a. Themain character cannot get to work because of the stormy weather. b. The main character must learn to overcome his fear of spiders. c. The main character realizes that his actions towards others makes him a bully. d. The main character has an argument with her friend because they do not agree on which activity they should do together. e. Both B and C 3. Which of the following humanities is defined as the way the human body forms around space? a. architecture b. dance c. paintings d. sculptures e. music 4. How would an architect design a centered space? a. The architect designs the space for comfort and enjoyment. b. The architect creates the space to be functional and serve a purpose. c. The architect focuses the space around one object. d. The architect designs the space to be beautiful, so that people want to look at it. e. The building itself is designed to the center of life and everything bustles around its doors.

What is the difference between a low relief structure and a high relief structure? a. In low relief sculptures, the inwards depth is minimal, whereas in high relief sculptures, the art has been carved into the material and some remains connected to the source. b. Low relief sculptures are lower to the ground, where high relief sculptures are often found in higher places. c. In low relief sculptures, the sculptor carves into the material, but in high relief sculptures, the sculptor uses materials that are found in the environment. d. Low relief sculptures are designed with a specific purpose, while high relief sculptures are built to invoke emotions in the viewers. e. There is no difference between the two types of sculptures.

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Humanities Study Guide

5. Which of the following is not classified as a medium? a. Oils b. Tempura c. Fresco d. Acrylic e. Waterpaints 6. Which sonic device in poetry uses a stream of words that all start with the same first phoneme? a. alliteration b. assonance c. cacophony d. homonym e. onomatopoeia 7. Which of the following refers to the third-person omniscient point of view? a. The author tells the story through an outsider’s perspective. b. The story is told from an outsider’s perspective and the narrator knows one character’s thoughts and feelings in the story. c. The story is told from an outsider’s perspective and the narrator knows what every character is thinking in the plot. d. The author talks directly to the reader and uses words like “you”.

8. Which of the following is correctly paired? a. Melody: how high or low a sound is b. Pitch: series of notes the audience hears c. rhythm: beat or combination of accents and duration d. scale: how fast or slow the music is played e. tempo: predetermined sequence of notes 9. Which medium did Cimabue use in painting Madonna and Child Enthroned with Angels ? a. acrylic b. fresco c. oil d. tempura e. watercolor 10. When you are examining a painting’s contrast of details, colors, shapes, and regions, what composition principle are you evaluating? a. balance b. gradation c. proportion d. unity e. variety

The Answer Key is found on page 14.

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Humanities Study Guide

Chapter 1 Answer Key Chapter 1 1. A 2. E

3. B 4. C

5. E 6. A

7. C 8. E

9. D 10. D

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