Humanities (Abridged)

Humanities Study Guide

©2020 Achieve Page 6 of 14 Evaluating Paintings When we evaluate paintings, it is important to look at the qualities we have discussed and how they contribute to the painting. 1.3 Sculpture Unlike paintings, sculptures are predominately things we picture as being three dimensional. They are ancient forms of creative expression that transcend time. Typically, they are either representative or abstract. One of the most common subjects of sculptors is the human body and its various forms. The first sculptures we will discuss are sunken relief , and for these works, sculptors typically carve into a rock. They project inwards and are dependent on light and touch to be experienced. Low relief sculptures also project inwards but are not as prominent as sunken. The depth of the sculpture or risen parts is minimal. High r lief sculptures refer to art that has still been carved into the material, while some remains connect to the source, but there is a portion protruding and emphasized. Full-round sculptures are difficult and free standing. These are the three-dimensional sculptures that we picture in our brains. Sculptures can be made of almost any material, but there are generally only two ways for an artist to create them. The first way is the subtractive process or removing material to create the work of art. Usually, this is done with stone or wood, and the artist chips away, sands, and takes off layers until they are finished. The additive process creates sculptures by layering material one on top of another. This process is common with plaster, clay, wax, and sometimes metal. The artist's process is unique to them and can be altered however they choose; these are merely examples of the most common. Other elements that add to sculptures are texture, movement, and location. Although statues in formal settings are discouraged from being physically touched, our minds still understand what it would feel like to touch them. This concept is related to the texture of the sculpture; it can add a conveyed meaning. For example, David is made of marble, which is smooth and appears flawless; this makes the statue feel perfect, pristine, and almost inhuman. Similarly, metal can feel industrial and harsh, and wood feels rustic and primitive. These are subjective and dependent on your personal taste, but critics agree that the material conveys meaning. The way the sculptor places the body or subject can give off a feeling of movement. Some positions imply stagnation, while others can make you feel like they are in mid-step by the placement of the foot. Freed sculptures are pieces of art that move. This type of sculpture has become more prevalent in modern times, especially after the creation of the mobile in the 20th century. Lastly, the location, where the sculptor places and intends for the sculpture to be, is often part of the artwork. Most of the sculptures are placed in temples, churches, and nationalist locations, while others are in parks or select areas that influence the inspiration of the art itself. People use all these elements and traits to evaluate sculptures. 1.4 Architecture Architecture has been evolving for centuries, and when we look through the past, we can see how the buildings were unique and creative structures. Architecture is an excellent hollowed-out structure that we experience by moving through its insides and outsides. Architecture is defined as the shaping of buildings and spaces. Due to the cost of building such monumental structures, great architecture is associated strongly with money and power. Three essential elements must be present in great architecture: design, material, and function.

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