Nursing 211

N211: Health Differences Across the Lifespan I Neg. Pressure Vents are used for patients who need assistance for short periods of time, such as during sleep.

Bronchoscopy inspects larynx-trachea-bronchi. NPO 6-12h before and keep patient NPO until gag reflex comes back. Monitor for laryngeal edema, hemorrhage & pneumothorax. Thoracentesis is used to obtain a specimen of pleural fluid for diagnosis, & to remove excess pleural fluid. DO NOT talk or cough during the procedure. Chest x-ray after procedure to rule out pneumothorax Thoracoscopy is used to visualize thoracic structures through small incisions in an intercostal space; used to obtain pleural fluid, tissue biopsies & tumor staging. C&S (culture and sensitivity) - used to diagnose bacterial infection. Acid Fast Smear - used for TB (client requires three) CT Scan - used to diagnosis lesions PFT is used to assess status of patients with pulmonary disease & response to therapy. Measures lung volume, ventilatory function, lung compliance, airway resistance, diffusion capacity, & gas exchange

Echinacea Used primarily to treat and prevent increased respiratory tract infections. Also, to increase immunity & tx wounds. Bacteriostatic & Antiviral actions. Vitamin E Antioxidant to prevent or retard oxidation & the production of frequent radicals. Has a positive effect on the health of blood vessels. Acid Base Balance PH 7.35> or PH 7.45< Medulla controls inspiration & expiration center of the brain. PaCO2 = 35-45 Pa02 = 80-100 HCO3 = 22-26

Positive Pressure Ventilation works by pushing air into the lungs during inspiration under positive pressure through a tracheostomy or endotracheal tube PEEP is positive end expiratory pressure. This method applies positive pressure to the airway during exhalation, keeping the alveoli open. Prevents collapse of small airways which allows increased numbers of alveoli for ventilation. CPAP is continuous positive airway pressure. Delivers positive pressure continuously during spontaneous breathing


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