Speech Study Guide

problem being addressed and the nature of the problem. Some audiences may understand different aspects of a given problemwhile others may not. At times an audience will not need much elaboration and at other times they will. In contrast to the reflective thinking sequence, the motivated sequence is best suited to a topic with emotional and logical appeal. This approach tends to work best for basic needs, as defined by Maslow, and is organized around five steps: • Arouse: Capture audience attention and focus on the problem • Need: Help listeners to understand there is a problem that needs their attention and action • Gratify: Reveal solutions to the problemand assure listeners they possess the power to remedy a situation • Visualize: Through effective language, a speaker can help listeners form a mental picture of how they can improve their situation • Action: Appeal to the audience to take specific action The motivated sequence allows the speaker to engage the audience’s emotions and urges them to act, while addressing the problem and solution. The motivated sequence tries to convince an audience that they have the power to act and can enable them to visualize how these actions can address a problem. Visualization helps audience members become motivated. The speaker’s own passion and commitment, awareness of the audience’s values and needs, and understanding details of a solution are central to this organizational pattern. The final most common organization pattern is the narrative pattern . The narrative pattern uses one or more stories to organize a speech. Some speakers prefer to use this less direct and more natural, or organic, method of organization due to cultural and personal preferences. Speakers introduce their idea and share various stories to illustrate and reinforce the speech’s thesis. Narrative patterns are typically used in informal settings or with certain audiences, such as children. 4.4 Speech Outlines Most everyone has used an outline at some point in their lives. Speakers use different outlines in the preparation of their speeches. Outlines are valuable tools that allow a speaker to record early thoughts, experiment with different organizational strategies, consider whether evidence is appropriate via observation of the relationship between ideas and supporting material, and improve their delivery of a speech. There are three commonly used outlines: working, formal full-sentence outlines, and keyword outlines. Working outlines help a speaker to develop ideas as they brainstorm, investigate topics, and reflect emerging views. This type of outline can undergo many changes before completion. This is the outline that allows the writer to lay out the basic structure of a speech. Working outlines must include a general and specific purpose, an introduction, a specific thesis, and a preview. In this type of outline three main ideas, a conclusion, and a list of references should also be included. Formal full-sentence outlines are completed after research and before delivery. These outlines


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