Speech Study Guide

the least important notion to the most important notion, or from the emotionally neutral points to the emotionally intense points. • Causal patterns are useful for speakers who want their audience to understand how an idea or event has unfolded and the relationship between two things. • Problem-solution patterns analyze a problem (effect) in terms of the contributing causes and then propose a solution that the audience may endorse. • Motivated sequence allows the speaker to engage the audience’s emotions and urges them to act, while addressing the problem and solution. The motivated sequence tries to convince an audience that they have the power to act and can enable them to visualize how these actions can address a problem. • Narrative pattern uses one or more stories to organize a speech. • Working outlines help a speaker to develop ideas as they brainstorm, investigate topics, and reflect emerging views. This type of outline can undergo many changes before completion. • Formal full-sentence outlines are completed after research and before delivery. These outlines contain full-sentences and bibliographies in addition to containing fully supported ideas. • Keyword outlines are often used for speeches because they abbreviate a version of the formal outline and are used to remind the speaker of their ideas. • Structure is a framework to organize speech content. Clear structure helps an audience follow the ideas of a speaker and contains both macro and micro structure. • Macrostructure is the overall organizational framework used to present speech content and is comprised of four elements: introduction, body, conclusion, and transitions. Formal outlines help a speaker see their macrostructure. • Microstructure involves the specific language and styles within sentences. • Thesis statement is a single declarative statement that contains the central topic, purpose, and goal of a speech. • Transitions are statements that verbally summarize one main point and introduce the next main point. • Section transitions are complete sentences that show the relationship between and bridge major parts of the speech. • Signposts are words or phrases that connect pieces of supporting material to the main point or sub-points.


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