N213: Health Differences Across the Lifespan 3 Study Guide
Chapter One: Infectious and Communicable Diseases Infectious and communicable diseases are illnesses that can be spread from one person to another. These are also commonly referred to as contagious diseases. The causative organisms are bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, and protozoa. The person who catches one of these causative organisms becomes known as the host . In order for someone to get acutely ill with an infectious or communicable disease, all the conditions have to be in place. Let’s take a look at how that happens: 1.1 Infections Chain of Infection The person who gets sick or catches a communicable disease goes through a cycle known as the “chain of infection.” This is when the causative organisms, that cause infectious and communicable disease, leave one host by “mode of transmission” and enter another host. There is a “portal of exit” out of one host and a “portal of entry” into the new host.
N213: Health Differences Across the Lifespan 3 Study Guide • Teach patient about disease process, transmission, and management of symptoms o Teach the importance of not sharing cups or eating utensils and avoiding contact with saliva o Teach about complications due to inadequate rest and heavy lifting o Explain that the Eppstein-Barr virus can be long lasting and even permanent, but can be managed with adequate rest Expected outcomes for mononucleosis: • Verbalizes reduction in symptoms • Demonstrates knowledge of disease management and prevention of transmission • Verbalizes reduction in fatigue • Demonstrates the ability to pace self and manage activity levels Rubeola (Measles) Measles are one of the infectious diseases that most children are immunized for. This disease still poses quite a large health risk due to lack of immunizations in some, or reduction in immunity over a period of years after immunizations were given. Measles are caused by the Rubeola virus. The virus is highly contagious among non-immunized children, teenagers, and adults. It can be very harmful to pregnant women and their fetus because it is responsible for some birth defects. Complications in infected children are very rare, but can include otitis media, pneumonia, encephalitis, bronchiolitis, laryngitis, and mastoiditis. The virus is spread by coughing and sneezing and is a respiratory virus, even though there is a rash present. Once exposed, measles incubation can last up to two weeks before the acute phase of illness. The duration of the illness usually lasts anywhere from seven to 10 days. Signs and symptoms of rubeola (measles): • Fatigue • Lethargy • Fever • Cough, runny nose, and cold-like symptoms • Conjunctivitis • Maculopapular rash from head to toe • Photosensitivity • White spots in the mouth (Koplik’s spots)